The electric vehicle industry is growing at a high pace these days. The technological advancements in this field attract people to work in this industry. Are you planning a job in electric vehicle industry? Then this Electric Vehicle Interview Questions and Answers will definitely help you out.
There are different types of firms working in the electric vehicle domain. EV charger manufacturers, EV manufacturers, EV controller design companies, etc.
Before attending the interview try to know more about the company and its activities. The interview preparation needs to be in focus on the requirements of the post to the company.
Electric Vehicle Interview Questions
We are going to discuss a few interview questions and their answers related to electric vehicles. These questions are mainly for entry-level and mid-level candidates. We start with some basic questions and then discuss in-depth questions.
While answering the question you need not tell the whole answer that we have written here. The anwers are written such a way that you get a detailed insight about the topic. You shall pick only the relevant points to answer the question.
#1 Why do you choose an electric vehicle company?
I consider the electric vehicle industry as a place where I could deliver the best of my knowledge. This is one of the fields where many technological advancements happen. Working in the EV sector provides opportunities to be part of cutting-edge advancements in the automotive industry.
The growth potential of EVs is high and I would like to be a part of it by contributing my ideas and effort. Moreover, I’m concerned about the environment and eco-friendly transportation. So, I think it would be a better option to be a part of an organization that focuses on electric vehicles.
#2 What are electric vehicles and what are their classifications?
An electric vehicle is a type of vehicle that uses one or more electric motors for propulsion instead of an internal combustion engine that runs on fossil fuels like gasoline or diesel. Electric vehicles are powered by electricity stored in rechargeable batteries or obtained from other sources such as hydrogen fuel cells.
There are three main types of electric vehicles:
#1 Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs): These vehicles are powered solely by electric motors and rely on rechargeable batteries for energy storage. BEVs do not have an internal combustion engine and produce zero tailpipe emissions. They need to be plugged into an external power source, such as a charging station or an electrical outlet, to recharge their batteries.
#2 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): PHEVs combine an electric motor with an internal combustion engine. They have a larger battery pack than traditional hybrid vehicles, which can be charged by plugging into an external power source. PHEVs can operate in electric mode for a certain distance before switching to the internal combustion engine or can combine both power sources for improved efficiency.
#3 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): HEVs feature both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. The electric motor assists the engine during acceleration and deceleration, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Unlike PHEVs, HEVs cannot be charged externally and rely on regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine to recharge the battery.
#3 What are the main components of an electric vehicle?
The main components of an electric vehicle are
#1 Electric Motor: The electric motor is the primary propulsion system in an EV. It converts electrical energy from the battery into mechanical energy to drive the vehicle’s wheels. There are different types of electric motors used in EVs, including AC induction motors and permanent magnet motors. Since EVs have regenerating capability as well the propulsion system can’t be called electric motors. They are electric machines that can act as both motors and generators.
#2 Battery Pack: The battery pack is the energy storage system in an EV. It typically consists of numerous individual battery cells connected to provide the required voltage and capacity. The battery pack stores electrical energy and supplies power to the electric motor. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in EVs due to their high energy density.
#3 Power Electronics Components: Power electronics are responsible for managing the flow of electrical energy between the battery, the electric motor, and other vehicle systems. They include components such as inverters, converters, and motor controllers. Power electronics control the speed and torque of the electric motor, and they also handle the charging process when the vehicle is plugged into an external power source.
#4 Onboard Charger: The onboard charger converts AC (alternating current) power from an external charging station or electrical outlet into DC (direct current) power to recharge the vehicle’s battery pack. It ensures that the battery pack receives the correct voltage and current for charging.
#5 Thermal Management System: The thermal management system regulates the temperature of various components in the EV, including the battery pack and electric motor. It uses cooling systems, such as liquid cooling or air cooling, to maintain optimal operating temperatures and ensure the longevity and efficiency of the components.
#6 Vehicle Control Unit (VCU): The vehicle control unit serves as the central controller that manages various functions in the EV. It coordinates communication between different systems, including the motor, battery, power electronics, and charging system. The VCU also monitors and controls safety features, traction control, and overall vehicle performance.
#7 DC-DC Converter: A DC-DC converter converts high voltage DC supply from the battery to low voltage supply. This is used to charge low-voltage batteries to operate auxiliary systems such as headlamps, window motors, wiper motors, etc.
#4 What are the advantages of electric vehicles over IC engine vehicles?
Electric vehicles (EVs) offer several advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. Here are some of the key advantages of electric vehicles:
Environmental Benefits: EVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, meaning they do not release pollutants like carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter, and other harmful gases into the atmosphere. By reducing reliance on fossil fuels, EVs help to mitigate climate change and improve air quality.
Energy Efficiency: EVs are more energy-efficient than ICE vehicles. Electric motors have higher efficiency rates compared to internal combustion engines, which waste a significant amount of energy as heat. EVs convert a higher percentage of electrical energy from the battery into actual propulsion, resulting in less energy waste.
Reduced Operating Costs: Electric vehicles generally have lower operating costs than ICE vehicles. Electricity is usually cheaper than gasoline or diesel on a per-mile basis. Additionally, EVs have fewer moving parts and require less maintenance since they don’t have components like oil filters, spark plugs, and timing belts that need regular servicing or replacement.
Energy Independence and Renewable Energy Integration: Electric vehicles offer the potential for energy independence by utilizing renewable energy sources for charging. By integrating EVs with renewable energy generation, such as solar or wind power, it becomes possible to reduce reliance on non-renewable energy sources and create a more sustainable transportation ecosystem.
Quiet and Smooth Operation: Electric motors are significantly quieter and provide smoother acceleration compared to internal combustion engines. The absence of engine noise enhances the driving experience and reduces noise pollution in urban areas.
Government Incentives and Support: Many governments worldwide offer incentives and support programs to promote the adoption of electric vehicles. These can include tax credits, rebates, grants, and preferential parking or access to certain areas. Taking advantage of these incentives can make EVs more financially attractive.
Better Performance: Highly versatile electric motor helps smooth control and instantaneous acceleration of the vehicle. The vibration-free operation is another advantage.
#5 How to Charge a Hybrid Electric Vehicle?
A Hybrid Electric Vehicle does not feature an external charger. The two methods to get an HEV battery charged are the following
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) operate differently from fully electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of charging. Unlike EVs, which rely solely on external charging to replenish their battery, HEVs have a self-charging capability. Here’s how hybrid electric vehicles get charged:
#1 Regenerative Braking: HEVs utilize regenerative braking, a process that converts the kinetic energy generated during braking or deceleration into electrical energy. The electric motor acts as a generator, capturing the energy and converting it into electricity to recharge the hybrid battery. This feature helps replenish the battery while driving and improves overall efficiency.
#2 Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Charging: HEVs also charge their batteries using the internal combustion engine (ICE). When the engine is running, it generates excess power that is used to recharge the battery. The energy generated by the ICE is converted into electricity through a generator, which charges the battery.
#3 Idle Charging: HEVs can take advantage of idle periods to charge the battery. When the vehicle is stationary or idling, the ICE can be used to generate electricity to charge the battery. This helps ensure the battery remains sufficiently charged even when the vehicle is not in motion.
#6 Why do we need an HEV then?
Hybrid electric vehicles generally have a higher fuel efficiency than IC engine vehicles.
The primary purpose of the battery in hybrid electric vehicles is to support the electric motor and improve overall fuel efficiency by supplementing the internal combustion engine. The motor helps the IC engine to operate at higher efficiency operating points most of the time and improves the efficiency of the vehicle.
#7 Which of the following will have a higher capacity battery: Battery Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle?
BEV has a higher capacity battery and it can operate only using electric energy. The all-electric range of BEV would be higher than HEV and PHEV.
PHEV’s battery is of lesser capacity than that of the battery of BEV.
The battery’s capacity in HEVs is generally smaller compared to PHEVs and BEVs since they rely less on electric power and have a shorter electric-only driving range.
#8 When was EV first made?
Around 1832, Robert Anderson develops the first crude electric vehicle, but it isn’t until the 1870s or later that electric cars become practical. The first electric vehicle was invented before the invention of the internal combustion engine.
#9 Why EV takes this long to get attention?
Several factors contributed to the electric vehicle (EV) industry taking a considerable amount of time to gain significant attention and adoption. The key reasons are:
#1 Technological Limitations: In the early stages of EV development, battery technology was limited, leading to vehicles with short driving ranges and long charging times. This made EVs less practical and less competitive with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, which had longer ranges and quick refueling capabilities.
#2 Infrastructure Challenges: The widespread adoption of electric vehicles requires a robust charging infrastructure, including public charging stations and fast-charging networks. Developing such infrastructure takes time and investment. Without a reliable charging network, potential EV owners may have concerns about the availability and convenience of charging, which can impact their decision to switch to an electric vehicle.
#3 Cost and Affordability: Initially, electric vehicles were more expensive than traditional ICE vehicles due to the high cost of batteries and limited economies of scale. The higher upfront costs made EVs less accessible and less attractive to a broader consumer base. However, as battery costs have been declining, technological advancements have been made, and economies of scale have improved, making electric vehicles more affordable and competitive in recent years.
#4 Range Anxiety and Perception: Range anxiety, the fear of running out of charge with no available charging infrastructure nearby, has been a concern for potential EV owners. The limited driving range of early electric vehicles contributed to this anxiety. Additionally, there were misconceptions about EV performance, charging times, and reliability, which affected public perception and slowed adoption.
#5 Market Readiness and Government Support: The electric vehicle market required time to mature and reach a level of readiness in terms of technological advancements, manufacturing capabilities, and consumer demand. Government support in the form of incentives, subsidies, and regulations promoting electric vehicles has played a significant role in accelerating adoption. However, it took time for governments to recognize the importance of EVs and implement supportive policies.
#6 Psychological and Behavioral Factors: People tend to be resistant to change, especially when it comes to well-established technologies such as the internal combustion engine. Familiarity with ICE vehicles and a lack of awareness or experience with electric vehicles may have initially hindered the widespread acceptance and adoption of EVs.
#10 Are EVs eco-friendly since we generate electricity from coal?
Yes. They are. First of all the efficiency of coal-based power plants is around 40% [Ref]. Assume that the generated electricity reaches the vehicle with a transmission efficiency of 88%. The charging efficiency is 98%. Assuming the efficiency of the motor is 95%, the overall efficiency would be the product of all these values and it is equal to around 32%.
A petrol car has an efficiency of 28%. So it converts fuel into kinetic energy with a maximum efficiency of 28%.
This comparison accounts only for electricity from coal-based power plants. Here itself there is a little advantage in terms of pollution.
IC engines emit smoke where ever it travels and resulting in pollution everywhere. The power plants are located in some remote or specific regions and it would not spread the harmful gas all over the city.
This comparison does not include all the factors about eco-friendliness.
Electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to be more environmentally friendly compared to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. Here are some more key factors that contribute to their eco-friendliness:
Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions: EVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, meaning they do not emit pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), or particulate matter during operation. The emissions associated with EVs depend on the source of electricity generation. If the electricity comes from renewable sources like solar or wind power, the overall greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly lower compared to ICE vehicles.
Energy Efficiency: Electric motors are more energy-efficient than internal combustion engines. EVs can convert a higher percentage of the energy from the battery into actual propulsion, whereas ICE vehicles waste a significant amount of energy as heat. This higher energy efficiency contributes to less overall energy consumption and reduced environmental impact.
Renewable Energy Integration: EVs can leverage renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, for charging. By integrating EV charging with renewable energy generation, it is possible to reduce reliance on non-renewable energy sources and further decrease carbon emissions associated with the charging process.
Lifecycle Emissions: When evaluating the environmental impact of vehicles, it is essential to consider their lifecycle emissions. While EVs may have higher emissions during the manufacturing phase due to battery production, they generally have lower emissions over their entire lifecycle compared to ICE vehicles. This is primarily due to the cleaner energy sources used for charging and the absence of tailpipe emissions during operation.
Potential for Grid Decarbonization: The increasing adoption of EVs presents an opportunity for grid decarbonization. As more EVs are charged, there is a greater incentive to transition to cleaner and renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. This shift would further enhance the environmental benefits of EVs and contribute to overall reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
Electric Vehicle Interview Questions & Answers eBook
We have written an eBook “Electric Vehicle Interview Questions & Answers That You Should Read” where you will get more interview questions about electric vehicles. You can download the book from Amazon and HERE is the link to the book.
This book will be helpful not only for the candidates who attend interviews but also for people who like to know more about EVs.
Read the book to attend electric vehicle interview confidently. I wish you all the very best!!
We have discussed a few electric vehicle related interview questions in this post and introduced an eBook about the same topic. Knowing these questions and answers will help you in interview in electric vehicle companies that focus on battery, inverter, other software solutions, etc.