An electric vehicle is a huge investment in which everyone expects the vehicle lasts long. The life expectancy of the electric vehicle affects the decision of people to buy an EV. Life expectancy comparison of EV happens with internal combustion engine vehicle. We are going to discuss the life expectancy of electric vehicle splitting them into 3 part series. First part covers Electric car motor life expectancy.
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Electric car motor life expectancy
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy to propel an electric vehicle. Different types of electric machines are used in an electric vehicle.
AC induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor, DC motors, reluctance motors, etc. An electric motor is a highly reliable component in an electric vehicle.
Construction of electric motor is not that complicated for an electric vehicle. It does not require additional belts, engine oils, alternators connected to it to generate electricity for auxiliary supply as in a conventional vehicle.
Internal combustion engine temperature goes around 600 degree Celsius where the electric motor industrial standard ambient temperature is 40 degree Celsius and its working temperature never allowed to go beyond 105 degree Celsius in class F insulation.
AC Induction motors are the champions of the electric vehicle motors. Developments in the field of speed control of induction motors using power electronics components make them superior in the electric vehicle.
At normal operating conditions and within the limits of motor specified values, an electric vehicle motor lasts more than 15 to 20 years.
Factors affecting the life of electric car motor
There are many factors that affect the life expectancy of an electric vehicle motor. Those factors that affect the life of electric motors are
- Fluctuations in input power
- Unexpected load changes
- Improper housing of the machine
- Environmental factors – temperature, humidity
High current in electric machine damages the winding and voltage fluctuations result in insulation failure. This thermal runaway of electric machine forces to rewind the coils. Rewinding reduces the efficiency of the electric motor (1-2%)
Improper housing of the electric machine increases the vibration, exerts unnecessary forces on the motor and reduces the life of bearing.
Temperature and humidity result in short circuits, insulation failures, etc. and reduces the life of electric vehicle motor.
An electric motor is the main component of an electric vehicle that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. The life span of an electric machine is more than that of other components of electric vehicle (Eg. Battery).
Electric motor life depends on temperature, input power, load fluctuations, etc. Compared to internal combustion engines, electric motors are maintenance-free and long-lasting.
- Electric motors last long (>15 to 20 years) if they operated in normal conditions
- Electric car motor life expectancy is affected by input power fluctuation, environmental factors, improper housing, and unexpected load changes.
In the next post, we would see the life expectancy of electric vehicle battery which is the expensive component with a relatively short life span.
Next Post: Life expectancy of electric car battery